Narendra Damodardas Modi, born on September 17, 1950, is an Indian politician serving as the 14th prime minister of India since May 2014. Formerly the chief minister of Gujarat from 2001 to 2014, Modi is a Member of Parliament for Varanasi and a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a right-wing Hindu nationalist paramilitary organization. Raised in Vadnagar, Gujarat, Modi joined the RSS at the age of eight and later became a full-time worker in 1971. In 2001, he became the Chief Minister of Gujarat, a tenure marked by economic growth but criticized for the 2002 Gujarat riots, where over 1,000 people, mostly Muslims, were killed. Although a Supreme Court-appointed investigation in 2012 found no evidence against him, criticism persisted for alleged failures in health, poverty, and education. Modi led the BJP to a majority in the 2014 general election, implementing policies that attracted foreign investment but faced criticism for reducing spending on social programs and initiating controversial actions like demonetization. During his second term, Modi's administration conducted the 2019 Balakot airstrike and won the 2019 general election. However, his government faced challenges with the revocation of Jammu and Kashmir's special status, the Citizenship Amendment Act, and the handling of the 2020 Delhi riots. Controversial farm laws led to protests and subsequent repeal. Modi oversaw India's response to the COVID-19 pandemic, with a significant number of casualties. While maintaining high approval ratings, Modi's leadership has been associated with democratic backsliding, right-wing politics, and criticism for his Hindu nationalist beliefs and handling of the Gujarat riots, contributing to his controversial image both domestically and internationally.